A Chinese research collaboration between members of Jilin University and Changchun University of Science and Technology (CUST) describes their use of localized electrochemical deposition (using the Exaddon CERES system) to additively manufacture microscale copper structures.
Published in the International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, the paper details mechanical properties, morphology, and chemical composition of pure copper structures printed with the CERES system (referred to in the paper as LECD-μAM).
The team conducted various analyses of mechanical properties, in part utilizing an in situ nanoindenter (Alemnis AG, Switzerland) to measure the compressive mechanical properties of helical copper springs.
Results are very notable, for example, shear modulus of the helical spring material was much higher than bulk copper; 60.8 GPa compared to ∼44.2 GPa.
According to Wanfei Ren (CUST):
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